A Translation Project (Sample Chapter)

The Record of Famous Paintings of All Dynasties

by Zhang Yanyuan ( ca. 9th Century, Tang Dynasty)

ZhangYanYuan is the art critic and historian of Tang Dynasty (618-907) His book The Record of paintings of All Dynasties is the first book of Chinese art history. The book contents ten volumes in which Zhang Yanyuan includes three hundreds seventy two artist’s biography. He also elaborates the origins of painting, the prosperities and ruinations of painting in history, the theory and criticism of painting and even the mounting of painting, etc.. Zhang Yan Yuan quoted the text on art from his contemporary critics and art historians, therefore many invaluable ancient text on art has survived. The book has been considered one of most important book on art history, theory and criticism of Chinese painting, it is one of the best book to study Chinese ancient painting and its influence even extends to the practice of ink painting today.

Translation: By Qigu Jiang

《历代名画记》 卷一,第二篇,叙画之兴废

图画之妙,爰自秦汉,可得而记。降于魏晋,代不乏贤。洎乎南北,哲匠间出。曹、卫、顾、陆,擅重价于前;董、展、孙、扬,垂妙迹于后。张、郑两家,高步于隋室; 大安兄弟, 首冠于皇朝。此盖尤所烜赫也。世俗知尚者, 其余英妙,今亦殚论。

The Record of Famous Paintings of All Dynasties
Tome1, Chapter 2 : The Prosperity and Ruination of Painting

(English translation)1/2.1
The art of painting, since the time of Qin and Han 1, has been recorded in text. Later, in the time of Wei and Jin 2 , there were many celebrated painters. In the time of Southern and Northern Dynasties 3, great masters emerged. Cao Buxing 4,Wei Xie 5, Gu Kaizhi6 and Lu Tanwei7 enjoyed great fame and high status in their time; outstanding works of Dong Boren8,Zhan Ziqian9,Sun Shangzi10 and Yang Qidan11 have been inherited. Zhang Sengyao 12 and Zheng Fashi 13 became prominent during Sui Dynasty; Da An Brothers 14 may be second to none in our time. These painters are great masters. Other renowned painters will also be included in this book in so far as I am able.

1, Qin (秦) Dynasty (221-207BCE) China’s first unified Dynasty. Han (汉) Dynasty (202BCE-220CE) with an interruption of Xin Mang (新莽) Usurpation (9-23CE ). Zhang Yanyuang listed only one Qin Dynasty artist in the book (See Tome 4), and that artist was not a Chinese. No paintings survived from Qin, however, thousands of life-like (sized) terracotta warriors of Qin Shihuang evidentially support the assumption that painting of Qin period could be comparable to those clay sculptures.

2, Wei (魏) Dynasty (220-265CE) was a northern state. Jin (晋) Dynasty (265-420CE) consisted of two periods:the Western Jin (西晋, 265-316 CE) and Eastern Jin (东晋, 317-420CE). The prominent Wei court official Sima Yan deposed Wei Emperor Cao Huan in 265CE,and established the state of Western Jin. Western Jin was conquered by Former Zhao (前赵, 304-329CE) in 316CE. One year later in 317CE,Sima Rui, a royal of Western Jin, retreated to the south and set Jiankang (建康, modern city of Nanjing) as capital city for his regime; Jiankang was located south east of Luoyang (洛阳), the capital city of Western Jin; thus the Dynasty was called Eastern Jin. The historical appellation of the period is Two Jins and Sixteen States. This period together with the period of Southern and Northern Dynasties (南北朝) are considered important periods of development in painting.

3, Southern and Northern Dynasties refers to a number of states which existed in China collectively in the period of 420-589CE. Northern Dynasties were: Northern Wei (北魏), established in 386CE, unified Northern China in 439CE and in 534 CE, it dissolved into East Wei (东魏, 534-550CE) and West Wei (西魏, 535-556CE); Northern Qi (北齐, 550-577CE) and Northern Zhou (北周, 577-581CE). Southern Dynasties were: Song Dynasty (宋, 420-479CE ), Southern Qi (南齐, 479-502CE ), Liang Dynasty (梁, 502-557CE ) and Chen Dynasty (陈, 557-589CE ).

4, Cao Buxing (曹不兴), painter, was active in Wu (吴) State (222-280CE ) during the Three Kingdom (三国) period. See Tome 4, the artist biography.

5, Wei Xie (卫协,c. Western Jin) was a student of Cao Buxing. See Tome 5, the artist biography.

6, Gu Kaizhi (顾恺之), painter of Western Jin (c. 344-405CE) See Tome 5, the artist biography.

7, Lu Tanwei (陆探微), painter, (c. Song of Southern Dynasty). See Tome 6, the artist biography.

8, Dong Boren (董伯仁), painter, (c. Northern Zhou, and Sui (隋) Dynasty). See Tome 8, the artist biography.

9, Zhan Ziqian (展子虔), a painter of Sui Dynasty. See Tome 8, the artist biography.

10, Sun Shangzi (孙尚子), a painter of Sui Dynasty. See Tome 8, the artist biography. .

11, Yang Qidan (杨契丹), a painter of Sui Dynasty. See Tome 8, the artist biography..

12, Zhang Sengyao (张僧繇), a painter of Liang of Southern Dynasty. (See tome 7, the artist biography) It is odd for Zhang Yanyuan to present Zhang Sengyao together with Zheng Fashi of Sui Dynasty; some scholars pointed out that might be a Zhang Yanyuan’s mistake; however, it could be that recognition of Zhang Sengyao arose during the Sui Dynasty.

13, Zheng Fashi (郑法士), a painter of Sui Dynasty. See Tome 8, the artist biography.

14, Yan Lide (阎立德) and Yan Liben (阎立本) of Tang Dynasty. Yan Lide was bestowed the fief of Da An, thus they were called Brothers of Da An. See Tome 9, the artist biography.

汉武创制秘阁, 以聚图书。汉明雅好丹青, 别开画室。又创立鸿都学, 以集奇艺,天下之艺云集。及董卓之乱, 山阳西迁,图画缣帛, 军人皆取为帷囊 。所收而西七十余乘,遇雨道艰, 半皆遗弃。

(English translation) 1/2.2
Emperor Wudi 1 of Han Dynasty erected the Mi Ge Pavilion 2 for collecting books. Emperor Ming Di 3 who had a passion for painting, set up a painting studio. Also, he established the institution of Hong Dou Xue 4 , to collect unique arts of the world. During the rebellion of Dong Zhuo, 5 Shanyang fled westward 6 ; soldiers took paintings with them and used them as packaging sheets and canopies for carriages. The art treasures they took filled up more than seventy vehicles. There was rain and the road was treacherous; half of what they took was lost 7.

1, The 7th Emperor of Han Dynasty, Liu Che (刘彻,July 14, 157 BCE -March 29, 87 BCE ), see Shi Ji The Record of History by Sima Qian, volume 12, the Biography of Xiaowu (司马迁《史记-孝武本纪》).

2, Royal Library of Han Dynasty. Mentioned in the Book of Han – the Document of Literature and Arts (Hanshu,Yiwen zhi《汉书-艺文志》); during the time of Wu Di (武帝), the court set the policy for collection of books, constituted the official position for writing, the collection of books including various authors and biographies, all housed in Mi Fu (秘府). And in The Seven Strategies (Qilue《七略》) edited by Liu Xiang (刘向) of Western Han, the court of Han have built Yange (延阁), Guannei (广内), Mishizhifu (秘室之府) to store books; however, there was no collection of painting mentioned.

3,Emperor Ming Di (明帝) of Han Dynasty, Liu Zhuang (刘庄), ruled 57-75CE.

4, The Library of Han Dynasty, named after the location; inside of the Gate of Hong Dou (鸿都门). It was also an art school for recruiting artistic talent during the time of Emperor Ling Di (灵帝) of Han Dynasty (ruled 168-188CE).

5,6, Dong Zhuo (董卓), ? – 192CE, a powerful warlord general. In the year of 188CE, Dong Zhuo deposed Emperor Shao Di (少帝) Liu Bian (刘辩) of Han Dynasty and replaced him with seven year old puppet Emperor Xian Di (献帝) Liu Xie (刘协). In the year of 190CE, retreating from military siege, Dong Zhou took the young Xian Di and forced over a million residents of Luoyang to evacuate westward to Changan. Dong’s army plundered and burned the city of Luoyang (See The Book of later Han – the Biography of Dong Zhuo《后汉书-董卓传》). Later, Dong was killed and Xian Di was deposed by Cao Pi (曹丕), the Wen Di of Wei (魏文帝), and demoted to Duke of Shanyang (山阳公).

7, According to The Book of Later Han – Rulin Biography 《后汉书-儒林传》, it was Wang Yun (王允) who salvaged the paintings which filled seventy carriages. According to Japanese scholar Okamura Shigeru (冈村繁),Zhang Yanyuan quoted the sentences directly from Niu Hong’s (牛弘) The Petition for Allowance for Book Donation《上表请开献书之路》. See the Book of Sui, Biography of Niu Hong 《隋书-牛弘传》 and The General Mores《风俗通》by Ying Shao (应劭).

魏晋之代, 固多藏蓄。胡寇入洛,一时焚烧。宋、齐、梁、陈之君,雅有好尚。晋遭刘曜,多所毁散。重以桓玄,性贪好奇,天下法书名画,必使归己。及玄篡逆, 晋府真迹,玄尽得之。何法盛《晋中兴书》云: “刘牢之遣子敬宣诣玄请降,玄大喜,陈书画共观之。”玄败,宋高祖先使臧喜入宫载焉。

(English translation) 1/2.3
In the time of Wei and Jin Dynasty, there were a great number of paintings in court collections. However, many were burned during the Hu Kou 1 Invasion of Luoyang2. Emperors of Song Dynasty3, Qi Dynasty4, Liang Dynasty5 and Cheng Dynasty6 all loved art. Jin Dynasty suffered from the war with Liu Yao7 and much of the collection was destroyed. The collection was once again ravaged during the chaos of the war waged by Huan Xuan8. Huan Xuan was a man of avarice, who desired to possess all of the world’s famous calligraphies and paintings. After having usurped the power of Eastern Jin Dynasty, he seized all court collections of authentic works. He Fasheng 9 wrote in his book the Resurgence of Jin Dynasty 10: “Liu Laozhi 11 sent his son Jingxuan to offer his surrender, Huan Xuan was very happy, and showed Jingxuan the calligraphies and paintings and enjoyed them together.”After Huan Xuan was defeated, Emperor Wu Di of Song Dynasty 12 sent Zang Xi 13 immediately to storm the palace and take away the collection.

1, A derogatory term for Northern nomadic tribes; here referring to the Army of Xiongnu (匈奴) led by Liu Yao (刘曜) and Shi Le (石勒) that destroyed Luoyang in 311CE.

2, In the year of 311CE Liu Yao (See note 7) captured the city of Luoyang and Sima Chi, the Huai Di (怀帝) of West Jin Dynasty. He burned down the Palace and desecrated royal tombs; thousands of lives were lost.

3, 4, 5, 6, They were all states of Southern Dynasties, located in southern China during the period of 420-589 CE..

7, Liu Yao (刘曜), ?- 328CE,a general of Xiongnu descent who was responsible for the Destruction of Yongjia (永嘉之乱) 307-313CE.

8, Huan Xuan, (桓玄) 369-404 CE., the son of Eastern Jin Dynasty general Huan Wen (桓温), and the founding emperor of short-lived dynasty Huan Chu (桓楚) 403-404 CE..

9, 10, He Fasheng (何法盛), a court official of Song of Southern Dynasty, and the author (disputed, see the History of Southern Dynasty-biography of Xu Guang,volume33《南史-徐广传,卷33》) of the history book of Jin Dynasty, the Resurgence of Jin Dynasty (Jin Zhong Xing Shu《晋中兴书》).

11, Liu Laozhi (刘牢之), ? – 402 CE, a general of Eastern Jin Dynasty, was sent by Sima Yuanxian (司马元显) an Eastern Jin Royal on a punitive expedition to eliminate Huan Xuan, fearing imminent elimination, he instead surrendered to Huan Xuan, that lead Huan Xuan to conquer Jiankang (建康), the capital city of Eastern Jin, and Sima Yuanxian was killed.

12, Liu Yu (刘裕) 362-422 CE, general of Eastern Jin,launched a military campaign against Huan Xuan in 404 CE, and defeated Xuan in 405 CE. In 420 CE, Liu Yu deposed Sima Dewen, the Gong Di (386 – 421 CE) of Eastern Jin, and crowned himself the first emperor of Liu Song (刘宋) Dynasty.

13, Liu Yu’s advisor, was designated official of Kufu (库府), the official in charge of royal storage house.

南齐高帝科其尤精者,录古来名手,不以远近为次,但以优劣为差。自” 陆探微” 至” 范惟贤” 四十二人,为四十二等、二十七秩,三百四十八卷,听政之余, 旦夕披玩。

(English translation) 1/2.4
Emperor Gao Di of Southern Qi Dynasty1, organized and graded acquired works of renowned painters from ancient times, but he did not sort them by the chronological order but by the degree of excellence of these works. From Lu Tanwei to Fan Weixian, 2 forty two painters, arranged into an order of forty two 3, compiled in twenty seven suites 4, altogether three hundred forty eight scrolls in total; Gao Di enjoyed them at leisure before and after his everyday administrative duties of overseeing state affairs.

1, Xiao Daocheng (萧道成), 427 – 482B CE, a general of Song of Southern Dynasty, the founding emperor of Qi of Southern Dynasty. Like Liu Yu, Xiao Daocheng deposed Liu Zhun(469 -479 CE),the Shun Di of Song Dynasty, and crowned himself the first emperor of Qi.

2, Lu Tanwei and Fan Weixian are two painters of Song of Southern Dynasty(See tome 6, the artist biography).

3,Deng (等) could be translated as “Rank”, however the meaning of the “Rank” of Deng is different from the “Rank” of Pin (品), more of a judgment on art; here, Deng is more of a numerical order that Gao Di used to organize his collection.

4, The word Zhi (帙) in the edition of The Art World by Wang《王氏画苑》could be the correction of Zhi (秩) in Jia Jing Edition《嘉靖本》,however two other later editions the Guide for Ancient Book 《津逮秘书》and the Studies on the Guide in Searching of the Origin 《学津讨原》kept Zhi (秩) as in Jia Jing Edition. The definition of Zhi (帙, in Wang’ edition) are: 1, book cover, 2, the quantifier for volumes of books. The definition of Zhi (秩, in Jia Jing and two other editions) is order; since there was already an order of forty two, it should signify twenty seven suites of paintings.

梁武帝尤加宝异, 仍更搜茸。元帝雅有才艺, 自善丹青, 古之珍奇, 充叨牣内府。侯景之乱, 太子纲数梦秦皇更欲焚天下书画, 既而内府图画数百函,果为景所焚也。及景之平, 所有画皆载入江陵,为西魏将于谨所陷。元帝将降,乃聚名画法书及典籍二十四万卷,谴后阁舍入高善宝焚之,帝欲投火俱焚,宫缤牵衣得免。吴越宝剑,并将斫柱令折,乃叹曰:“萧世诚遂至于此,儒雅之道,今夜穷矣!”于谨等于煨烬之中, 收其书画四千余轴,归于长安。故颜之推《观我生赋》云. “人民百万而囚虏, 书史千两而烟颺。”史籍己来,未之有也,溥天之下,斯文尽丧!”
(English translation)1/2.5
Emperor Wu Di of Liang Dynasty 1 with his greater love for art, searched for works of art and expanded his collection. Emperor Yuan Di 2 of Liang Dynasty was artistically talented; he himself was an accomplished painter. His inner court was filled with precious works of antiquity. During Hou Jing rebellion 3 Prince Gang 4 was said to have a recurring dream in which he saw Emperor Qin Shihuang again burning all the books and paintings left in the world 5. This nightmare became reality when hundreds of paintings of the inner court collection were burned by Huo Jing. After Hou Jing Rebellion was put down, all the paintings were transported to Jiangling 6 . Jiangling underwent a siege and was seized by the General Yu Jin of West Wei Dynasty7. Before he surrendered, Yuan Di piled up works of paintings and calligraphies and books totaling two hundred forty thousand scrolls8, and ordered the Houge Sheren 9 Gao Shanbao to burn them. Yuan Di threw himself into the fire, wanted to perish together with the paintings and calligraphies, but was rescued by court maids. Yuan Di wielded the sword of Wu and Yue 10 against the pillar in an attempt to break the sword. He sighed:“I, Xiao Shicheng am a loser, tonight I see the end of the arts of elegant tradition!”From the ashes, Yu Jin took four thousand calligraphies and paintings which survived the fire, and brought them back to Chang An. In the poem of Yan Zhitui 11 Guan Wo Sheng Fu there was this description:“Millions of people were taken as captives and put in prison, thousands of historical books were burnt to ashes and blown away with the wind.”This has never occurred in the history of the world; civilization is extinguished!

1, XiaoYan (萧衍), 464-549CE, was a poet, a calligrapher, the Buddhist emperor, and the author of four essays on the theory of calligraphy: Observation on Twelve States of Calligraphy of Zhong Yao《观钟繇 书法十二意》,Reply to Recluse Tao on Calligraphy 《答陶隐居论书》,The Form of Cursive Calligraphy 《草书状》and The Comment on Modern and Ancient Calligraphers 《古今书人优劣评》, the first two essays were included by Zhang Yanyuan in his book The Important Essays on calligraphy 《法书要录》.

2, Xiao Yi (萧绎), 508-554 CE, his courtesy name is Xiao Shicheng (萧世诚). The seventh son of Xiao Yan, he was a passionate collector of books and paintings, and the first emperor painter ever recorded in Chinese history, and the author of some twenty books. His painting The Painting of the Duty Tribute《职贡图》(Song Dynasty copy) is housed in Nanjing Museum.

3,Hou Jing (侯景), 503-552 CE, was an ethnic of northern tribe Jie (Kiat羯), and a surrendered Eastern Wei general to Xiao Yan. Xiao Yan intended to exchange Hou Jing for his nephew captured by Eastern Wei and that led Hou Jing to rebel (548 CE). The rebellion caused the destruction of Jiankang. See The History of Southern Dynasty, the Biography of Hou Jing 《南史-侯景传》.

4,Xiao Gang (萧纲), 503-551 CE, was the third son of Xiao Yan, and a renowned writer of Liang Dynasty. He succeeded the throne as a puppet emperor under the hand of Huo Jing and later was deposed and killed by Hou Jing See also The History of Southern Dynasty, the Biography of Hou Jing《南史-侯景传》.

5, This refers to the 213 BCE incident of infamous burning of books and burying of scholars alive by Qin Shihhuang (秦始皇帝),259-210BCE. See The Record of History, volume 6, the Biographies of Qin Shihhuang 《史记-卷六-秦始皇本纪》.

6, After the Huo Jing rebellion, Xiao Yi set Jianlging (江陵) modern city of Jingzhou (荆州) in Hubei (湖北) province, as the capital city of Liang Dynasty.

7, Yu Jin (于谨), 493-568CE,was a general of Northern Wei, Western Wei and Northern Zhou.

8, According to two Tang texts before Zhang Yanyuan’s book (The Brief Story of Three Kingdom《三国典略》by Qiu Yue of Tang, and About Calligraphies of Two Wang 《二王等书录》by Zhang Huai Guan,both were active in Xuanzhong (玄宗) period (714-756CE); the total number of burned scrolls was one hundred forty thousand instead of two hundred forty thousand; this could be Zhang Yanyaun’s exaggeration, or it could be a manuscript error. The early form of book was scroll therefore scrolls burned were not necessarily all paintings.

9, Houge Sheren (后阁舍人), a title for court official who was responsible for emperor and his family’s daily living affairs. Houge (后阁) was the inner court of emperor’s residence.

10, Wu and Yue were two states in south China during the period of Spring and Autumn (771-476BCE); both were famous for sword making.

11, Yan Zhitui, 531-590CE, was a famous educator and writer of Southern and Northern Dynasties. His book The Yan Family’s Parental Instruction《颜氏家训》is one of the earliest books on education in China.

陈天嘉中,陈主肆意搜求, 所得不少。及隋平陈,命元帅记室参军裴矩、高颎收之,得八百余卷。隋帝于东京观文殿后起二台:东曰妙楷台,藏自古法书,西曰宝迹台,收自古名画。炀帝东幸扬州,尽将随驾,中道船覆. 大半沦丧。炀帝崩,并归宇文化及,化及至聊城,为窦建德所取,留东都者,为王世充所取。圣唐武德五年,克平僭越,擒二伪主,两都秘藏之迹,维扬扈从之珍,归我国家焉。

(English translation) 1/2.6
In the year of Tianjia in Southern Chen Dynasty, 1 Emperor Wen Di was found vigorously collecting calligraphies and paintings, thus adding to a sizable collection. Later, Chen was conquered by Sui2, Fei Ju 3 and Gao Ying, 4 two Yuan Shuai Ji Shi Can Jun 5, took the order to hunt for calligraphies and paintings; eight hundred pieces were recovered as a result. Emperor Yang Di of Sui Dynasty 6 had two pavilions built behind the Guan Wen Dian in Dongjing 7 . The east pavilion called Miao Kai Tai, 8 housed the collection of calligraphy from ancient times. The west pavilion called Bao Ji Tai9, housed the collection of paintings from ancient times. Emperor Yang Di took all collections with him on the trip to Yangzhou, and the ship sunk during the voyage; much of the collection was lost. Upon the death of Emperor Yang Di, Yuwen Huaji 10 took over the remaining collection; he later retreated to Liaocheng, and the collection fell into Dou Jiande’s 11 hand. The collection remaining in Dongdou fell into Wang Shichong’s hand 12. In the fifth year of Wu De of Great Tang Dynasty 13 the usurpation was suppressed and two illegitimate emperors 14 were captured. The imperial collection of two capital cities 15 together with the treasures that Emperor Yang Di took to Yangzhou all became a part of the treasures of my country 16.

1, Tianjia (天嘉) (560-566 CE) was the reign name for emperor Chen Qian (陈蒨), the Wen Di of Chen (陈文帝).

2, Wen Di of Sui (隋文帝), Yang Jian (杨坚), conquered Nothern Zhou in 581 CE, established Sui Dynasty, and later conquered Chen Dynasty in the South; thus China was unified again after three hundred and sixty years of war and separation.

3, Fei Ju (裴矩, dates unknown), a court official supervising the trading with Xiyu (西域) (Western territories) during Yang Di (See note 6) period of Sui Dynasty. He was the author of the book The Record of Xiyu with Illustrations《西域图记》(lost in history). Later he became a court official of Tang Dynasty.

4, GaoYing (高颎), a prominent court official of Yang Jian, the Wen Di of Sui Dynasty, was Yuan Shuai Chang Shi (元帅长史) (not Yuan Shuai Ji Shi Can Jun (元帅记事参军) as Zhang Yanyuan said) to Yang Guang when conquering Chen Dynasty, later killed by Yang Guang for criticizing the court (see The Book of Sui-Biography of Gao Ying《隋书-高颎列传》)

5, Yuan Shuai Ji Shi Can Jun (元帅记室参军), title for an official who is an assistant to the general.

6, Yang Guang (杨广), 569-618 CE, was the Yang Di of Sui Dynasty (隋炀帝). He was the second son of Yang Jian, and a celebrated poet. He was responsible for the construction of the grand canal and rebuilding of the city of Luoyang, and three military campaigns against Korea;he imposed heavy taxation to finance these costly projects which were the cause of the fall of Sui Dynasty (see The Book of Sui, Biography of Shi Zu 《隋书-世祖本纪》).

7, The city of Luoyang, east of Changan, thus called the Eastern Capital (东京). Guan Wen Dian (观文殿) was the library to house rare books, according to The Observations of Feng《封氏闻见记》; the collection of books reached 370,000 under the Yang Di, as compared to 80,000 during Xuan Zong (玄宗) period, the largest number of volumes in Tang Dynasty.

8, Miao Kai Tai (妙楷台),directly translated The Pavilion of Wonderful Calligraphy. Kai typically denotes the manuscript style of calligraphy, here refering to the general calligraphy itself.

9, Bao Ji Tai (宝迹台),directly translated, The Pavilion of Treasured Painting. Ji refering to paintings from the past.

10, Yuwen Huaji (宇文化及), ?-619 CE,was a Xian Bei ethnic, and a bodyguard (卫宫)of Yang Guang when Guang was a prince. Yuwen Shu,the father of Huaji, assisted Yang Guang in winning the crown, and in return, Yang Guang gave away his daughter, the Princess Nanyang, to Huaji’s brother, as his wife. Yuwen Huaji betrayed and killed Yang Guang in a military coup in 618 CE. (See The Book of Sui《隋书》**)

11, Dou Jiande (窦建德), 573-621 CE, a farmer, was the leader of a peasants uprising. In 619 CE in Liaocheng (聊城), Dou Jiande captured Yuwen Huaji and killed him. Dou Jiande also seized Sui properties from Yuwen Huaji including paintings that Yang Guang brought to Yangzhou. In 618 CE, Dou Jiande crowned himself and established a short lived dynasty, Xia (see The New Book of Tang, the Biography of Dou Jiangde《新唐书-窦建德列传》).

12, Wang Shichong (王世充), ?-621 CE, was one of the seven court officials supporting the crowning of Yang Guang’s grandson, Yang Tong, to be Huangtai Zhu of Sui after Yang Guang was killed. Wang Shichong killed Yang Tong a year later, and crowned himself as the Emperor of Zheng(see The Old Book of Tang《旧唐书》**).

13, The fifth year of Wude (武德) of Tang Dynasty was the year of 622 CE.

14, They were Dou Jiande and Wang Shichong.

15, The two cities were Xijing (西京)and Dongjing (东京). The actual name for Xijing (West Capital) was Daxing (the modern city of Xian); Yang Jian set it as the capital city when he established Sui. Yang Guan set Louyang as the capital city after he took over power; the location of Louyang was east of Daxing; hence the name Dongjing (East Capital).

16, The State of Tang.
乃命司农少卿宋遵贵载之以船,泝河西上,将致京师。行经砥柱,忽遭漂没,所存十亡二一(国初内库只有三百卷,并隋朝以前相承御府所宝)。太宗皇帝特所耽玩,更于人间购求。天后朝,张易之奏召天下画工,修内库图画,因使工人各推所长,锐意模写,仍旧装背,一毫不差,其真者多归易之。易之诛后,为薛少保稷所得 。薛殁后,为岐王范所得(玄宗弟,惠文太子)。王初不陈奏, 后惧, 乃焚之。时薛少保与岐王范、石泉公王方庆家所蓄图画皆归于天府。禄山之乱,耗散颇多。肃宗不甚保持,颁之贵戚,贵戚不好,鬻于不肖之手 。物有所归,聚于好事之家。及德宗艰难之后,又经散失,甚可痛也。

(English translation) 1/2.7
And then came the assignment for Sinong Shaoqing 1 Song Zungui 2 to load these treasures on to the ship, sailing to the westward by the river 3, to the capital city 4. When passing Dizhu 5, the ships encountered a sudden wave; most of the collection was submersed; only one or possibly two out of ten survived. (In the beginning years of Tang Dynasty, there were only three hundred pieces of calligraphy and painting in the state collection, and that included valuable pieces from former The Xiang Cheng Yu Fu of Sui Dynasty*1.) Emperor Taizong 5 indulged in collecting, and purchased a great deal from private collectors. During the time of Tian Hou Dynasty 6, Zhang Yizhi 7 proposed to commission the nation’s most skilled painters to do the restoration of the paintings in the court collection. With their various specialties, they made excellent replicas; the mounting was also done in the same old style. All were no less impressive than the originals, and most of original pieces fell into Zhang Yizhi’s hand. After Zhang Yizhi was killed, Siaobao 8 Xue Ji9 acquired the collection which, in turn, was acquired by Qi Wang Fan upon Xue Ji’s demise.(Qi Wang Fan was Emperor Xuanzong’s younger brother, the Prince of Hui Wen10 ) He did not report to the Emperor of his acquisition; afterward, out of the fear of court investigation, he burnt those calligraphies and paintings. Calligraphies and paintings once possessed by Siaobao Xue Ji, Qi Wang Fan and Shiquan Gong Wang Fangqing 11 then were all confiscated by the imperial court. Many of them were lost during the Lushan Rebellion12. Emperor Suzong 13 had no interest in keeping them, so he awarded them to emperor’s relatives; these relatives didn’t care for art either, and ended up selling them to strangers. Eventually these paintings came into the possession of those who loved art; however, they were lost again during the chaotic time of Dezong14. What a painful sorrow!

1, Sinong Shaoqing 司农少卿,was a title for an official. Sinong was a government bureau branch for agricultural and monetary affairs, first set up during Han Dynasty. In the time of Northern Qi Dynasty posts of Sinong Qing and Shaqing were established. Qing was the chief in charge of the bureau and Shaoqing was one rank lower.

2, According to The New Book of Tang, Song Zungui was Taifu Qing, not Sinong Shaoqing, and treasures he loaded on to the ship were all books. (See The New Book of Tang, volume 63, Record 47, literature and Arts1,《新唐书,卷六十三,志四十七,艺文一》).

3, To get the treasures that remained in Yangzhou, Song Zungui could take the Grand Canal; he could have sailed north first then west to the Yellow river, and then arrived at Louyang, loaded the treasures that remained in Louyang, then saied further westward to Changan.

4, The city of Changan.

5, Dizhu砥柱,the name of a mountain at the bank of the rapids of Yellow River, located west of Louyang.

5, Emperor Taizong唐太宗, 599-649 CE, Li Shimin李世民, was the second emperor of Tang Dynasty, and a celebrated calligrapher. It was said that he was entombed together with China’s most famous work of calligraphy The Gathering of Lanting Pavilion by Wang Xizhi of Eastern Jin.

6, Tian Hou Dynasty refers to Zhou Dynasty (699-705 CE) which was the reign of empress consort Wu Zetian (624-705 CE) .

7, Zhang Yizhi, ?-705 CE, was a favorite court official of Wu Zetian in her late years. He was said to be good looking and musically talented and he was rumored to be Wu Zetian’s lover.

8, Siaobao was the title for the court official who served as tutor to princes and other heirs of the Royals, thus being considered a prominent title.

9, Xue Ji, 649-713 CE, was a renowned painter and calligrapher, and was promoted to Taizi Siaobao and Libu Shangshu by Ruizhong of Tang (622-716 CE). Libu was one of the six government branches of Tang, and Shangshu was the title for the chief official. No works of Xue Ji survived. See tome 9, the artist biography.

10, Qi Wang Fan, ?-726 CE, was given the posthumous title Prince of Huiwen 惠文太子.

11, Wang Fanqing,?-702 CE,was a writer of many books on calligraphy including Wang’s Guide of Eight Calligraphy Styles《王氏八体书范》. He was bestowed the fief of Shiquan county, therefore received the title for Shiquan Gong (See The New Book of Tang, Record of Literature and Arts《新唐书-艺文志》, The Outline of the History of Calligraphy《书史会要》)

12, It is known as An Shi Rebellion 安史之乱(755-762 CE), it was named after two rebel leaders last names: An Lushan 安禄山(703-757 CE) and Shi Siming 史思明(703-761 CE). It was also known as the Tianbao Rebellion. Tang Dynasty suffered a great destruction with a death toll estimated at 33 millions (See Sorokin, Pitirim: The Sociology of Revolution, New York, H. Fertig, 1967, OCLC 325197) .

13, Li Heng, 711-762 CE, was the Emperor Suzong of Tang Dynasty.

14, Li Kuo, 742-805 CE, was the Emperor Dezong of Tang Dynasty, twice forced to flee from the capital city of Changan by Jiedushi (the regional military governor) rebellions.

自古兵火亟焚,江波屡斗,年代寝远,失坠弥多。傥时君之不尚, 则阙其搜访;非至人之赏玩,则未辨妍蚩。所以骏骨不来,死鼠为璞。磋乎! 今之人, 众艺鲜至,此道尤衰。未曾误点为蝇,惟见亡成类狗。

(English translation) 1/2.8
Since the ancient times, countless paintings have been destroyed in the disasters caused by wars, fires and floods, generation upon generation. If there had not been these emperors who appreciated art, there would have been no collection. If connoisseurs of high taste had not made their refined taste known, there would have not been distinctions between the beautiful and the ugly. Therefore, the splendid steed would not come; 1 the flesh of a dead rat would be regarded as Pu (raw jade) 2. Alas! In today’s world artists with various specialties are rare to find, the art of calligraphy and painting has seen a trend of decline. You don’t see the technique that turned an ink dot into a fly, but dogs resulting from an attempt to paint a tiger 3. .

1, It is a metaphor for the concept that true genius is not born without patronage. Zhang Yanyuan was quoting the ancient story that Guo Kui 郭隗told to the King of Yan State when persuading the king to be generous to rare talents. (See The Strategies of Warring States, Chapter of Yan《战国策-燕策》(Zhan Guo Ce-Yan Ce))

2,Zhang Yanyuan was quoting the story from Yiwenzi, the Great Path, volume 2 (Yiwenzi Dadao Xiapian)《伊文子-大道下篇》: that people of Zheng called jade before carving the Pu,while people of Zhou called the flesh of a rat the Pu, as a metaphor for the difference in perception in reading art.

3, They are two classical allusions. The first one is from Zhang Bei’s The Record of State Wu (Wu Lu)《吴录》: Sun Quan commissioned Cao Buxin to paint a screen, Cao accidentally spilled a bit of ink on the screen, however he cleverly turned the ink dot in to a fly, when Sun Quan saw it, he thought that was a fly and tried to flick it off(See The Record of Three Kingdom – Book of Wu – Biography of Zhao Da《三国志-吴书-赵达传》). The second one is from The Book of Later Han- Biography of Ma Yuan 《后汉书-马援传》. The story was to advise the artist to be cautious while imitating others’ styles. These two allusions could serve as a metaphor for the consequence that artists may suffer who like to show off without having real talent.

彦远家代好尚,高祖河东公、曾祖魏国公相继鸠集名迹。先是,魏国公与司徒汧公(李勉)并佐霍国公关内三军幕府(王思礼),霍公平定两京,魏公之策也。魏公与汧公因其同寮,遂成久要,并列藩阃,齐居台衡,雅会襟灵,琴书相得。汧公博古多艺,穷精蓄奇, 魏晋名迹, 盈于箧笥 。许询、逸少, 经年共赏山泉; 谢傅、戴遥,终日惟论琴画。(汧公任南海日,于罗浮山得片石,汧公子兵部员外郎约又于润州海门山得双峰石,并为好事所得,悉见传授。又汧公手斫雅琴尤佳者,曰响泉, 曰韵罄。汧公在滑州, 魏公在西川,金玉之音,山川亡间,尽缄瑶匣,以表嘉贶。西川慕客司空曙赋曰:“白雪高吟际,青霄远望中。谁言路遐旷,宫徵暗相遇。”时汧公并寄重宝,琴解及琴荐咸在焉。)

(English translation) 1/2.9
For generations, the Yan Yuan’s family had a passion for art. The father of the great grand grandfather Hedong Gong 1 and the great grand father Weiguo Gong 2 collected famous paintings. Once upon a time, Weiguo Gong and Situ Qian Gong (Li Mian) 3 both assisted Huoguo Gong Wang Sili 4 at the headquarters of the garrison army stationed in the Gate of the Great Wall. It was Wei Gong’s 5 advice that helped Huo Gong 6 settle the dispute of the two capital cities 7. Their experience of working together allowed them to foster a strong friendship. They both held important military and administrative posts, and they spent a great deal of time together sharing the views and ideas that reflected their minds and souls, and they also played qin*1 and corresponded with each other. Qian Gong was very knowledgeable and gifted. He devoted himself to collecting art, and acquired quite a number of famous Wei and Jin Dynasty paintings that filled up boxes. Their friendship was like that between Xu Xun and Yi Shao 8 who would gather to watch springs in the mountains year after year. It was also like the friendship between Xie Fu and Dai Kui 9 who could spend days in discussing music and painting. (During the incumbency of his post in Hainan, Qian Gong found a slab stone in Luofu Mountain; Qian Gong’s son Li Yue, 10 the Bingbu Yuanwailang, 11 also found a Twin Peak Stone in the Haimen mountains in Runzhou. Those two stones were favored by connoisseurs; they were later given to Wei Gong by Qian Gong. Moreover, Qian Gong handmade two fine qins: one was named “Xian Quan”, and the other was called “Yun Qing” 12. Qian Gong lived in Huazhou13, and Wei Gong lived in Xichuan14; however, the music made the distance of thousands of mountains disappear, and their deep appreciation for each other sealed in jade inlayed boxes that they sent to each other. This is best said in a poem by Muke Sikong Shu 15 of Xichuan: “Singing Baixue 16 loudly, while looking into the blue sky. Who said that the two places are far apart? The Gong Zhi17 could link the souls.” The two stones sent by Qian Gong, together with the music notes of qin and the case of the qin are all in my possession.)

1, Zhang Jiazhen,ca. 666-729 CE, was the Zaixiang (chancellor, the highest rank for court official) during the Xuanzhong period, and was bestowed the aristocratic title of Hedong Gong. He had no interest in acquiring any properties; instead, he loved to collect famous paintings and calligraphies. (See The Old Book of Tang, volume 99《旧唐书-卷九十九》. See also Bi Fei 毕斐 Essays on the Record of Famous Paintings of all Dynasties,《历代名画记》论稿 China Fine Art Academy Press, 2008 ).

2, Zhang Yanshang,ca. 727-787 CE, was the son of Zhang Jiazhen, and his name Yanshang was given by the Emperor Xuanzhong. He was given the title of Weiguo Gong and was appointed to the high court post due to the influence of his father; however, it was said that Zhang Yanshang was involved in some activities of corruption. See Old Book of Tang, volume 129. See also Bi Fei Essays on the Record of Famous Paintings of all Dynasties, China Fine Art Academy Press, 2008.

3, Li Mian , 717-788 CE, was a Tang royal. Situ 司徒 was a nominal title for an official in Tang Dynasty, usually granted on top of other titles to add its prominence. Qian Gong was Li Mian’s aristocratic title.

4,Wang Sili,?-761 CE,was a native of Goguryeo, and the general of Tang who recaptured the capital city of Changan in 757 CE and later recaptured the city of Louyang. See The Old Book of Tang, volume 110, the Biography of Wang Sili,《旧唐书-卷一百一十-王思礼传》.

5,Wei Gong is the short name for Weiguo Gong.

6, Huo Gong is the short name for Huoguo Gong.

7, Refer to the city of Luoyang and Changan. See also note 4.

8, Xu Xun,ca. 345 CE,was a writer and a famous hermit. Yi Shao is the courtesy name of Wang Xizhi 303-361 CE, the great calligrapher of East Jin Dynasty. Xu Xun, Wang Xizhi and others would often get together in the mountains in Huiji 会稽. Their friendship was praised by literati through out history. See The Book of Jin, Biography of Wang Xizhi《晋书-王羲之传》,also see The Book of Royal Compilation in the Years of Taiping, volume 194《太平御览-卷一九四》.

9. Xie Fu is the short name of Xie Taifu, and the common name for Xie An (320-385 CE). Xie An was a prominent official of East Jin Dynasty, and was a friend of Wang Xizhi and one of the literati of Huiji gathering. He voluntarily surrendered his official post, and thus gained the reputation of a man of virtue. See The Book of Jin, vloume 79, Biography of Xie An《晋书-卷七十九-谢安传》. Dai Kui,ca. 326-396 CE, a musician (qin player), painter and sculptor. According to The Current Text,Chapter of Generosity《世说新语-雅量篇》Xie Fu and Dai Kui discussed music and painting.

10, Li Yue, dates unkown, was a Tang royal, a poet and painter of plum flower.

11, Bingbu was the government bureau of military of Tang, and Yuanwailang was an adjunct status of the post granted to those who do not have actual power.

12, Xian Quan could be translated as Canorous Spring, and Yun Qing could be translated as Ultimate Melody.

13, The location of Huazhou is now in Huaxian County of Henan Province.

14, Xichuan is the short name for Jiannan Xichuan 剑南西川, one of the frontier cities of Tang. The location of Xichuan is now the modern city of Chengdu and it includes the area of its North and West mountains.

15, Muke 幕客 was a title for advisor. Sikong Shu, ca. 720-790 CE, was a Tang poet.

16, Baixue is the short form for the term of Yangchun Baixue 阳春白雪. It is a tune formation commonly refering to the form of high art supposedly enjoyed only by the privileged few.

17, Gong and Zhi are two of the five traditional Chinese music scales. Here they refer to a deep understanding between friends.

大父高平公与爱弟主客员外郎(彦远叔祖, 名谂, 及汧公爱子纘祠部郎中,纘弟约兵部员外郎 ,字存伯)更叙通旧, 遂契忘言。远同庄、惠之交,近得荀、陈之会。大父请纘为判官,约与主客,皆高谢荣宦,琴尊自乐,终日陶然, 士流企望莫及也。繇至是万卷之书,尽归王桀,一厨之画,惟寄垣玄。李兵部又于江南得萧子云壁书飞白“萧” 字, 匣之以归洛阳, 授余叔祖,致之修善里,构一亭,号曰“萧斋”(王涯相倚权势,负之而趋,太和未为乱兵所坏,其” 萧”字本未具余所撰《法书要录》中。)

(English translation) 1/2.10
The grandfather Gaoping Gong1 and his favored younger brother, the Zhuke Yuanwailang (Yanyuan’s granduncle 2 whose name was Shen and Qian Gong’s beloved son Zuan 3, Cibu Langzhong 4, and his younger brother Yue 5, Bingbu Yuanwailang 6, whose name was Cunbai ) became bosom friends and kinred spirits. Theirs was like the companionship between Zhuang and Hui 7 in the ancient time and the friendship between Xun and Chen8 in later Han. Grandfather offered Zuan the post of Panguan 9; however, Yue and Shen both quit their high posts; instead, being free-spirited, they spent much of their time playing qin and drinking wine. Such was the enviable life that the literati would love to have. Thus, like thousands of books were given to Wang Jie 10 and one chest full of paintings was given to Huan Xuan11. Li Bingbu12 obtained a work of calligraphy with a character “Xiao” in the style of Feibai13 by Xiao Ziyun14 in the south; he had the calligraphy boxed and brought to Luoyang, and gave it to my granduncle. Shen took it to Xiushanli15 and built a pavilion named “Xiao Zhai”. (WangYai16 used his influence and power to take away the calligraphy; it was later lost in the war at the end of Taihe17. I documented the whole story of the “Xiao” in my book the Record of Calligraphy.)

1, Zhang Hongjing,760-824 CE,held the post of Zaixian twice and several posts of regional military governor. See The Old Book of Tang, volume 129《旧唐书-卷一二九》,and The New Book of Tang, volume 127《新唐书-卷一二七》.Also a meritorious calligrapher. See Zhang Yangyuan’s The Important Essays on Calligraphy.《法书要录》, and there are three occasions that Zhang Hongjing had artistic exchange with artist friends which were mentioned in the book. See tome 10.

2, Zhang Shen, Zhang Hongjing’s younger brother.

3, Li Zuan, Li Mian’s son, Li Yue’s brother.

4, Cibu Langzhong, a title for an official. Cibu was the government branch in charge of ancestor’s shrines, fetes and medical affairs; Langzhong was the branch chief.

5, Li Yue, the younger brother of Li Zuan, was a soul mate of Zhang Shen. The friendship between Zhang Yanshang and Li Mian continued into the younger generation.

6, See 1/2.9, note 11.

7, It refers to the friendship between Zhuangzi (Zhuang Zhou, ca. 369-286 BCE) and Huizi (Huishi, ca.370-310 BCE). It was recorded in many ancient texts such as Zhuanzi- Autumn Water, Be Happy, Xu Wugui《庄子-秋水, 至乐,徐无鬼》. According to Huainanzi-Xiuwu Exhortation《淮南子-修务训》Zhangzi wouldn’t get up because he could find nobody to talk to after the death of Huishi.

8, This refers to the friendship of three generations between families of Xun Su荀淑 (83-149 CE, the 11th grandson of the great thinker Xunzi) and Chen Shi 陈寔(ca.104-187 CE) . Zhang Yanyuan used this as an allusion to reflect his own family situation.

9, Panguan 判官, the official title for the assistant to the military governor, was usually appointed to trusted friends.

10, Wang Jie, 177-217 CE, one of the seven literatis of Jianan Period (196-220 CE) of Later Han, was also known for his passion for collecting books.

11, Huan Xuan. See 1/2.3 Note 8. The story of paintings that Gu Kaizhi left with Huan Xuan was recorded in the book, see tome 5, (5/9.1.?). Zhang Yanyuan used these two stories to illustrate his ancestor’s acquisition of the collection.

12, Li Yue. Li Bingbu if called with his title.

13, Feibai is a special effect of the brush stroke which could only be achieved by applying of a specific technique. It was said to be created by Cai Yong 133-192CE who was inspired by watching a monk painting the temple wall.

14, Xiao Ziyun, 487-549 CE, a historian, writer and calligrapher of Liang of Southern Dynasties. His work, the character of Xiao in Feibai style, was obtained later by Li Yue through a trading of three calligraphy works of Huang Xiang 皇象,Yang Xin 羊欣, and Xiao Lun 萧纶, plus a screen painting by Zhen Fashi 郑法士 (see Cui Bei 崔备The Memo of the Character Xiao《萧字记》).

15, Zhang Shen’s residence in Louyang.

16, Wang Yai, ?-835CE, senior court official who served Dezong (ruled 779-805CE), Shunzong (ruled 805CE), Xianzong (ruled 805-820CE), Muzong (ruled 820-824CE), Jingzong (ruled 824-827CE) and Wenzong (ruled 827-840 CE).

17, The era of Taihe (827-835 CE) also called Dahe, was the reign of Wenzong. War at the end of Taihe historically refers to the Coup of Guanlu in 835 CE,Wang Yai, Li Xun and other officials plotted a coup against eunuch court officials, but the plan failed, and Wang Yai and others were killed.

元和十三年,高平公镇太原,不能承奉中贵,为监军使内官魏弘简所忌。无以指其瑕,且骤言于宪宗曰:“张氏富有书画。”遂降宸翰,索其所珍。惶骇不敢缄藏,科简登时进献,乃以锺、张、卫、索真迹各一卷,二王真迹各五卷,魏、晋、宋、齐、梁、陈、隋杂迹各一卷,顾、陆、张、郑、田、杨、董、展,及国朝名手画合三十卷,表上曰:” 伏以前代帝王,多求遗逸. 朝观夕览,收鉴于斯。陛下睿圣钦明,凝情好古,听政之暇,将以怡神。前件书画,历代共宝,是称珍绝。其陆探微《萧史图》, 妙观一时,名居上品,所希睿鉴,别赐省览。”

(English translation) 1/2.11
In the thirteenth year of Yuanhe 1 grandfather Gaoping Gong was in charge of the ward of Taiyuan. He was not willing to please the powerful court eunuchs and made an enemy of the inner minister of Jianjunshi2 Wei Hongjian 3. Enabled to find fault with grand father, Wei made reports repeatedly to Emperor Xianzong 4, saying: the Zhang family has a great collection of calligraphies and paintings”. Xianzong issued a court order demanding those calligraphies and paintings. Frightened, Grandfather dared not to disobey; he selected works and had them sent to the Emperor right way. They were one original calligraphy work of each of the following masters: Zhong Yao5 , Zhang Zhi,6 Madame Wei 7 and Suo Jing, 8 five original works of calligraphy from each of the two Wangs 9 and one work from each of the artists of Wei Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, Song Dynasty, Liang Dynasty, Chen Dynasty, and Sui Dynasty, and one painting by each of the following artists: Gu Kaizhi, Lu Tanwei, Zhang Zengyao, Zheng Fashi, Tian Zengliang, Yang Qidan, Dong Boren, Zhan Zhiqian and other famous painters of our Tang Dynasty, totaling thirty scrolls. The note from grandfather to the Emperor read as follows:“Thanks to the effort of the emperors of various dynasties in recovering lost calligraphies and paintings, and who relished them day and night, thus making the collection possible. Your sage Majesty, the great connoisseur of antiquity, seeks to delight the senses by admiring these calligraphies and paintings in your leisure time after carrying out the duty of the state affairs. Calligraphies and paintings I presented are all exquisite works of all dynasties, and are all rare survived treasures. Among these works, the Xiaoshi Tu10 by Lu Tanwei, was considered as a superb painting then, and therefore was ranked as Shangpin11. For your authentication, I wish to earnestly request your special favor of it.”

1, Xianzong’s era name. The thirteenth year of Yuanhe was 818 CE.

2, Jianjunshi was a title for the official sent by the emperor to oversee the army. In later Tang years, the emperors distrusted generals, and therefore, sent court eunuchs as Jianjunshi thus bringing eunuch to position of prominence.

3, Wei Hongjian,?-804 CE, was a powerful eunuch official.

4, Li Chun, 778-820 CE, ruled 805-820 CE, the eleventh emperor of Tang.

5, Zhong Yao, 151-230 CE, a high rank official of Later Han, and Taifu of Wei in the Three Kingdom period thus gained a common name Zhong Taifu. He is considered one of the most important calligraphers in the history of Chinese calligraphy and generally mentioned together with Wang Xizhi as Zhong Wang; however, no work of Zhong Yao has survived. See The Record of Three Kingdom, the Book of Wei 13, Biographies of Zhong Yao, Hua Xin,Wang Lang Number 13《三国志-魏书十三,锺繇华歆王朗传第十三》.

6, Zhang Zhi (?-ca.192 CE), the master calligrapher of Caoshu Style, the creator of the Jincao (the contemporary Caoshu style),Zhang Zhi also had no work survive.

7, Wei Shuo, 272-349AD, the greatest female calligrapher in the history of Chinese calligraphy. She studied calligraphy with Zhong Yao, and taught Wang Xizhi. See The Important Essays on Calligraphy, Name List of Teachers on the Method of Brush 《法书要录-传授笔法人名》.

8, Suo Jing, 239-303 CE,famous calligrapher of West Jin Dynasty, and author of many books and essays on calligraphy. His essay The Form of Cursive Calligraphy Caoshu Zhuang《草书状》is considered an influential ancient text on Caoshu style of calligraphy.

9, Wang Xianzhi and Wang Xizhi were father and son, commonly referred as Two Wang.

10, The picture of Xiaoshi. Xiaoshi was a legendary lute player. According to The Story of Various Fairies, Volume 1, Xiaoshi by Liu Xiang of Han汉 刘向《列仙传-卷上-萧史》, Mu Gong of Qin (the ruler of Qin State in Spring and Autumn Period, ruled 659-621 BCE) married the Princess Nongyu to Xiaoshi; they were playing the flute under the moon one night and attracted a phoenix and a dragon, Xiaoshi then rode on the dragon and Nongyu rode on the phoenix, and together they flew away. Lu Tanwei painted the Xiaoshitu based on this legend.

11, The top grade for painting and calligraphy. See more in tome 2 Chapter 4 On Fame, Appraisal and Ranking 卷二, 第四篇《论名价品第》.

又别进《玄宗马射真图》(永宝府司马陈闳画),表曰:“玄宗天纵神赋, 艺冠前王,凡所游畋, 必存绘事。岂止云梦殪兕,楚人美旌盖之雄;浔阳射蛟,汉史称触舳舻之盛。前件图, 臣瞻奉先灵, 素所宝惜,陛下旁求珍迹,以备石渠,祖宗之美,敢不献呈”(掌书记、监察御史李德裕制词)手诏答曰:“卿庆传台铉,业嗣弓裘。雄词冠于一时,奥学穷乎千古。图书兼蓄,精博两全。别进《玄宗马射真图》,恭获披捧,瞻拜感咽,圣灵如临。其锺、张等书,顾、陆等画,古今共宝,有国所珍。联以视朝之余,得以寓目,因知丹青之妙,有合造化之功。欲观象以省躬,岂好奇而玩物? 况烦章奏,嘉叹良深。”其书画并收入内库,世不复见。其余者,长庆初,大父为内贵魏弘简门人宰相元稹所挤,出镇幽州,遇朱克融之乱,皆失坠矣。非戎虏所爱,及事定,颇有好事购得之。

(English translation) 1/2.12
In addition, Grandfather made a special dedication to present to the Emperor. It is the Xuanzong Mashezhentu 1(by Chen Hong2, the Sima 3 of the Yongbao court). In his writing to the Emperor (Xianzong) , it said:“Emperor Xuanzong, was heavenly endowed with his martial arts that surpassed those of former emperors. There were paintings made to document his hunting. Unlike people of Chu only praised flags and canopies while the King of Chu was hunting rhinoceros at Yunmeng, 4 nor like Emperor Wu Di of Han Dynasty bending the bow to shoot Jiao in the river of Xunyang5, the historical record only mentioned the grandeur of the fleet of the Emperor. The painting presented is a family treasure inherited from my ancestors. Knowing that Your Majesty is seeking paintings, and will house them in Shiqu Pavilion, how could I dare not to present to you my ancestor’s treasure!”(written by Zhangshuji,6 Jianchayushi 7 Li Deyu 8). The Emperor replied in writing:“Generations of your ancestors served as Taixuan 9 at the court, and you faithfully inherited the family virtue. Your eloquent rhetoric matches the eternity of your scholarship. Paintings and books you have collected are both exquisite in quality and comprehensive in category. Your special tribute, the Xuanzong Mashezhentu, has inspired reverence while I am looking at it; and I was moved to tears, as if I am at the presence of His Highness. The calligraphies of Zhong Yao, Zhang Zhi and others, the paintings of Gu Kaizhi, Lu Tanwei and others, are all ancient treasures of past and present, thus the treasures of my country. I relish them as I look at them after my duties of state affairs. I realize that the marvelousness of painting is to capture the creation of nature, and compel us to reflect upon oneself through looking at figures depicted in the paintings. Certainly it is not out of mere curiosity or just for fun. And, many thanks for your sincere note.”These calligraphies and paintings were then stored in the inner house of the palace and have never been seen again since then. The fate of the rest of the collection of calligraphies and paintings was no better. In the early years of Changqing 10 grandfather was demoted due to the blackballing by Zaixang Yuan Zhen11 , the disciple of the eunuch Wei Hongjian. He then took the post of military governor and was stationed in Youzhou, where the coup of Zhu Kerong12 took place; all of the collection was lost. The barbaric army had no interest in it. After peace was restored, the individual pieces were bought by many who loved art.

1, The title of the painting by Chen Hong. Xuanzong, the seventh emperor of Tang, ruled 712-756 CE. Mashezhentu, the picture of hunting.

2, Chen Hong, a court painter of Tang, dates unknown, active during Xuanzong (712-756 CE) and Suzong priod (756-762 CE). An attributed painting of Chen Hong The Picture of Eight Dukes Bagongtu《八公图》is housed in Nilsson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City.

3, A title for official. In tome 2, Zhang Yanyuan also mentioned that Chen Hong was Changshi (a title for official) at the court. See tome 2, Chapter 5: On Appraising, Collecting, Purchasing and Appreciating 卷二, 第五篇:《论鉴识、收藏、购求、阅玩》.

4, Yunmeng was an ancient name for a lake, believed to be located in the area of modern Hunan and Hubei province, exact location is in disputation.

5, The Xunyang is a river that is a section of Yangzi at Jiujiang in Jiangxi province. According to The Book of Han- Biography of Wu Di《汉书-武帝纪》, in 106 CE Wu Di shot Jiao Lung (legendary animal) when hunting at Xunyang.

6, A title for the official who assists the military governor in drafting official documents.

7, A title for the official who supervises the army.

8, Li Deyu,787-850 CE, was a court official and a poet. He was acting as Zhangshuji (secretary) and Jianchayushi (supervisor) in Zhang Hongzhi’s military administration, and later took the post of Zaixian (chancellor) during the period of Wuzong (the fifteenth emperor of Tang, who ruled 840-846 CE). See The Book of Tang, volume17《唐书-卷一七四》,The New Book of Tang, volume 180

9, Taixuan was the tool for lifting bronze vessel ding, and the bronze ding traditionally symbolized the rule of the emperor. Here Xianzong was praising Zhang family by mentioning of Taixuan.

10, Changqing was the era name of the reign of emperor Muzong (821-824 CE).

11, Yuan Zhen 元稹 779-831 CE, one of the greatest poets of Tang, often mentioned together with Bai Juyi**? as Yuan Bai. Yuan Zhen had similar experience as Zhang Hongjin; he offended eunuch official in the early part of his career and was handed a demotion in 810 CE. Later he was introduced by eunuch official Cui Tanjun and then was promoted to high posts including Zaixian in 822 CE. Among Yuan Zhen’s poetic creations, eight hundred thirty poems survived.

12, The regional military coup due to the misconduct of Zhang Hongzhi. Zhu Kerong (?-826 CE), whose grandfather was the former military governor, succeeded the post. See The New Book of Tang,volume 127《新唐书-卷一二七》.

彦远时未龀岁,恨不见家内所宝,其进奉之外,失坠之余,存者才二三轴而已。虽有豪势,莫能求旃,嗟而后来,尤须靳固。宜抱漆书而兴叹,莫将棐柿以藩身。聊因暇日,编以此记,且撮诸评品,用明乎所业; 亦探乎史传,以广其所知。(后汉孙畅之有《述画记》,梁武帝、陈姚最、谢赫、隋沙门彦悰、唐御史大夫李嗣真、秘书正字刘整、著作郎顾况,并兼有画评。中书舍人裴孝源有《画录》,窦蒙有《画拾遗录》,率皆浅薄漏咯,不越数纸。僧悰之评,最为谬误,传写又复脱错,殊不足看也。)如宋朝谢希逸、陈朝顾野王之流,当时能画,评品不载,详之近古, 遗脱至多。盖是世上未见其踪,又述作之人不广求耳。

(English translation) 1/2.13
Yanyuan was very young then and had not gotten the permanent teeth. I regret that I was not be able to see those calligraphies and paintings of my family. After most of pieces of the collection were offered to the Emperor, plus ones that were lost, there were merely two, maybe three, scrolls left. Despite the influence and power the family had, the collection could never be replaced. Alas! for us, the later generation,should never give up, should hold as tight as holding the Qishu 1 and do not trade off Fei Shi 2 for an official post. I spent my spare time writing this book of the record of paintings. I include the art criticisms too in order to illuminate what painting is about; this could clarify the history of painting, and to make the artists known. (Sun Changzhi3 of Later Han Dynasty wrote Shuhuaji 4, Emperor Wu Di5 of Liang Dynasty, Yao Zui6 and Xie He7 of Chen Dynasty, and Sui Dynasty Buddhist monk Yancong8, the Yushi Dafu of Tang Dynasty Li sizhen9, the Mishuzhengzi Lui Zheng10, and the Zhuzuolang Gukuang11, all had commentary on painting. The Zhongshu Seren Pei Xiaoyuan wrote Hualu12. Dou Meng wrote Huashiyilu13. However, their writings are either shallow or too brief and short in text, and often miss the point. Buddhist monk Yancong’s commentary is the worst of all; there are many errors and hiatuses in the script; it is not worth reading at all .) Painters such as Xie Xiyi of Song Dynasty14 and Gu Yewang of Chen Dynasty15, were wonderful artists; however, there is no commentary of any kind about them, and there are more artists who have been neglected in later period. This probably is because paintings of these artists are not available for viewing; it also might be people who write commentary are not looking hard enough to be inclusive!

1,Qishu 漆书refers to The Classic Edition of Shangshu《古文尚书》, one of the editions of Shangshu《尚书》(Classics of History) which had been popular during the Han Dynasty. The story was that the East Han scholar Du Lin had Qishu; he cherished it dearly, thus surviving the turmoil that Du Lin had experienced. Du Lin once said to Wei Hong that he did that because he did not want to see the history to perish. See The Book of Later Han, volume 57 《后汉书-卷五七》.

2,Feishi is the name of a tree; here it refers to its wood. Feishi grows in Zhuji诸暨where the Lanting Pavilion was located. Xie Feng of East Jin collected Wang Xizhi’s calligraphy that was written on the Feishi wood. His grand son gave half of the collection to Huan Xuan in exchange for an official post. See On Calligraphy, by Yu He of Song of Southern Dynasties虞龢《论书表》.

3,According to The Book of Sui, Chapter of Books《隋书-经籍志》,
Sun Changzhi should be active in Song of Southern Dynasties,however in The Observation on Paintings 《图画见闻志》by Guo Ruoxu,ca. 10th century, Sun Changzhi was an artist of later Wei State of Three Kingdom Period.

4,Nothing much of Shuhuaji《述画记》survived except for a few sentences that were quoted by Zhang Yanyuan in this book.

5,Xiao Yan was an author of many texts on calligraphy. See 1/2.5, note 1.

6,Yao Zui, dates unknown, was active in Chen of Southern Dynasties. In his The Sequel of the Rankings of Painting 《续画品》, he made a famous statement pointing out that ranking of artists by Xie He was not a proper method for understanding painting.

7,The author of The Rankings of Ancient Painting 《古画品录》. Xie He was active in Qi of Southern Dynasty. It is mistaken to regard him as a figure of Chen. According to the sequence of history it should be Xie He followed by Yao Zui.

8,The author of The Record of Later Painting 《后画录》.

9,Yushi Dafu was a title for a court official in charge of the government officials. Li Sizhen was the author of the book The Sequel of the Rankings of Painting Record《续画品录》, and part of it survived because of the quotations by Zhang Ynayuan.

10, Mishuzhengzi, was a title for an official whose duty included editing of books. Liu Zheng himself was a painter of Tang. See his biography in Tome 10.

11, Zhuzuolang was a title for an official in charge of editing history books and drafting official documents. Gukuang was a poet, landscape painter, and author of many texts on art including The Commentaries on Paintings 《画评》 which did not survive; however, 239 poems of his survived and were included in The Complete Edition of Tang Poem《全唐诗》.

12, Zhongshu Seren was a title for an official in charge of legal matters. Pei Xiaoyuan is the auther of The History of Painting in the Public and the Private in the Era of Zhenguan《贞观公私画史》,the book also has another title The Record of Paintings in the Public and the Private《公私画录》. The introduction of the book was written in the thirteenth year of Zhenguan (639 CE); it is the earliest record of pre Tang paintings. The author intended to include paintings as early as Wei and Jin; however, most of the paintings described were Sui Dynasty paintings.

13, Dou Meng, dates unknown, a famous calligrapher, was active during Suzong Period (756-762 CE) . He was the author of The Treatise on Calligraphy 《述书赋》; some believed that was written by his brother. His The Complementary Record of Painting (Huashiyilu《画拾遗录》) did not survive; however,part of it was quoted by Zhang Yanyuan in the book.

14, Xie Zhuan,421-466 CE,and his courtesy name was Xiyi. He was a poet, painter and an author of many texts; according to The book of Song – Xie Zhuan Biography 《宋书-谢庄传》,his poems and other writings totaled over four hundred; by the time of Sui Dynasty, according The Book of Sui, Chapter of books《隋书-经籍志》only nineteen had survived.

15, Gu Yewang, 519-581 CE, was a painter as well as a scholar of erudition with many books under his name like Xie Xiyi.

呜呼!自古忠孝义烈,湮没不称者曷胜记哉,况书画耶!圣唐至今二百三十年,奇艺者骈罗,耳目相接,开元、天宝,其人最多,何必六法俱全。(六法解在下篇),但取一技可采(谓或人物,或屋宇, 或山水,或鞍马,或鬼神,或花鸟,各有所长。) 自史皇至今大唐会昌元年,凡三百七十余人,编次无差,铨量颇定。此外旁求错综,心目所鉴, 言之无隐,将来者有能撰述,其或继之。时大中元年 ,岁在丁卯。

(English translation) 1/2.14
Alas, since the ancient time, there have been countless great heroes of royalty and filial piety, righteousness and martyrdom; they had gone into oblivion in history, much more than they had been written about, and I am sure that much more worse for calligraphies and paintings! Today, the great Tang Dynasty celebrates its two hundred thirtieth anniversary. During her time there has emerged so many talents of all skills, you can see and hear about them everywhere, and more so in the year of Kaiyuan1 and Tianbao2; the talented individuals are not necessarily masters of all six laws (will discuss
“six laws” in the following chapter). In fact, one specialty in painting would be adequate (for example, figure, or house and buildings, or landscape, or horse and saddle or ghost and deity, or flower and bird, as long as it is a specialty). From Shi Huang 3 to the first year of Huichang 4 of Tang Dynasty, over three hundred seventy artists, all listed by the time they lived, are to be evaluated. In addition, due diligence is performed on researches, and examining works of art both by eye and heart to assure the comprehension, and never conceal what ought to be said. I wish this discourse could be continued later by those who are capable. This is written at the time of Ding Mao 5, the first year of Dazhong 6 .

1, Kaiyuan, the first era name of Xuanzong 玄宗, was the period from 713 to 741 CE.

2, Tianbao, the second era name of Xuanzong, the period was from 742-756 CE.

3, The court official of Huang Di (one of five legendary emperors of ancient China), who was the pioneer of painting. See Seven Bookmark of Yun Bookcase《云笈七签》.

4, Huichang, the era name of Wuzong, first year of Huichang is 841CE.

5, The traditional Chinese calendar, the system of Heavenly Stems and the Earthly Branches, repeats every 60 years. Ding Mao that Zhang Yanyuan referred was the year of 847 CE. See

6, Dazhong, the era name for Xuanzong 宣宗, the first year of Dazhong was 847 CE.

Index 1, (names, official titles and places)
An Lushan 安禄山 1/2.7 note 12
Baixue白雪 1/2.9,note 16
Bao Ji Tai 宝迹台1/2.6,note 9
Bi Fei 毕斐1/2.9 note 1
Bingbu Yuanwailang 兵部员外郎 1/2.9, note 11
Cai Yong 蔡邕1/2.10 note 13
Cao Buxing 曹不兴 1/2.1, note 4,5,1/2.8 note 3,
Cao Huan 曹奂1/2.1, note 2
Cao Pi 曹丕 (魏文帝)1/2.2, note 3
Caoshu 草书1/2.11 note 6
Changan 长安 1/2.6 note 7
Changqing 长庆1/2.12,note 10
Changshi 长史1/2.12 note 3
Chen Hong 陈闳1/2.12, note 1
Chen Qian 陈蒨 (陈文帝)1/2.6 note1
Chen Shi 陈寔 1/2.10, note 8
Chengdu 成都1/2.9 note 14
Cibu Langzhong 祠部郎中1/2.10,note 4
Cui Bei 崔备 1/2.10 note 14
Dahe 大和1/2.10 note 17
Dai Kui 戴逵1/2.9,note 9
Daxing 大兴1/2.6 note 15
Dazhong 大中1/2.14, note 6
Dezong 德宗1/2.7 note 14
Dizhu砥柱1/2.7, note 5
Dong Boren 董伯仁 1/2.1, note 8
Dong Zhuo 董卓 1/2.2, note 5,6
Dongjing 东京 1/2.6, note 7
Dou Jiande 窦建德 1/2.6, note 11
Dou Meng 窦蒙1/2.13, note 13
Du Lin 杜林1/2.13 note 1
Fan Weixian 范惟贤 1/2.4,
Fei Ju 斐矩 1/2.6,note 3
Fei Shi棐柿 1/2.13, note 2
Feibai 飞白1/2.10, note 13
Gao Ying 高颎 1/2.6, note 4
Gaoguli (Goguryeo)高句丽 1/2.9 note 4
Guo Kui 郭隗 1/2.8 note 1
Gu Kaizhi 顾恺之 1/2.1, note 6,
Gu Yewang 顾野王1/2.13, note 15
Guan Wen Dian 观文殿 1/2.6,
Guangnei 广内 1/2.2 note 2
Guanlu 甘露 1/2.10 note17
Guo Ruoxu 1/2.13 note 3
He Fasheng 何法盛 1/2.3, note 9,10
Hedong Gong 河东公1/2.9, note 1
Henan 河南1/2.9 note 13
Hou Jing 侯景 1/2.5, note 3
Houge Sheren 后阁舍人 1/2.5, note 9
Hu Kou 胡寇 1/2.3 note 1
Huai Di 怀帝 1/2.3 note 2
Huan Wen 桓温 1/2.3 note 8
Huan Xuan 桓玄 1/2.3, note 8,11, 1/2.13 note 2, 1/2.10, note 11
Huang Di 黄帝1/2.14 note 3
Huang Xiang 皇象 1/2.10 note 14
Huaxian 滑县1/2.9 note 13
Huazhou 滑州1/2.9,note 13
Hubei 湖北 1/2.5 note 6
Huiji 会稽 1/2.9 note 8
Huichang 会昌1/2.14, note 4
Huishi 惠施 1/2.10,note 7
Huizi 惠子1/2.10,note 7
Hunan 湖南1/2.12 note 4
Huo Gong霍公1/2.9,note 6
Huoguo Gong 霍国公1/2.9
Jianchayushi 监察御史1/2.12,note 8
Jiangxi 江西1/2.12 note 5
Jianan 建安1/2.10 note 10
Jiankang 建康 1/2.1 note 2
Jianlging江陵 1/2.5, note 6
Jiannan Xichuan 剑南西川 1/2.9 note 14
Jiedushi 节度使1/2.7 note 14 1/2.11,note 2
Jincao 今草1/2.11 note 6
Jingzhou 荆州 1/2.5 note 6
Jingzong 敬宗 1/2.10 note16
Jiujiang 九江1/2.12 note 5
Kaiyuan 开元 1/2.14, note 1
Li Chun 李纯 1/2.11 note 4
Li Deyu 李德裕1/2.12,note 8
Li Heng 李亨1/2.7 note 13
Li Kuo 李适1/2.7 note 14
Li Mian 1/2.9, note 3,1/2.10 note 3
Li Shimin李世民1/2.7 note 5
Li Xun 李训1/2.10 note 17
Li Yue 李约 1/2.9,note 10,1/2.10,note 3,5
Li Zuan 李缵 1/2.10,note 3
Libu Shangshu 礼部尚书1/2.7 note 9
Lingdi 灵帝 1/2.2 note 4
Liaocheng 聊城, 1/2.6 note 11
Liu Bian 刘辩(汉少帝)1/2.2 note 5,6
Liu Che 刘彻(汉武帝)1/2.2, note 1
Liu Laozhi, 刘牢之 1/2.3, note 11
Liu Xie 刘协 (汉献帝)1/2.2 note 5,6
Liu Xiang 刘向 1/2.11 note 10
Liu Xin 刘歆 1/2.2, note 2
Liu Yao 刘曜 1/2.3 note 1
Liu Yu 刘裕 1/2.3 note, 12
Liu Zhuang 刘庄(汉明帝)1/2.2, note 3
Liu Zhun 刘准(宋顺帝)1/2.4 note 1
Lu Tanwei 陆探微 1/2.1, note 7, 1/2.4
Miao Kai Tai 妙楷台1/2.6,note 8
Mishizhifu 秘室之府 1/2.2 note2
Mishuzhengzi 秘书正字1/2.13, note 10
Mugong of Qin 秦穆公1/2.11 note 11
Muke 幕客 1/2.9, note 15
Muzong 穆宗1/2.10 note 16
Nanjing 南京1/2.1 note 2
Niu Hong 牛弘 1/2.2 note 7
Nongyu 弄宇1/2.11 note10
Okamura Shigeru冈村繁 1/2.2 note 7
Panguan 判官 1/2.10,note 9
Pei Xiaoyuan 裴孝源 1/2.13, note 12
Prince of Huiwen 惠文太子1/2.7, note 10
Qian Gong 汧公1/2.9, 1/2.10, note 3
Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 1/2.1, note 1, 1/2.5
Qiu Yue 丘悦 1/2.5 note 8
Qiwang Fan 岐王范1/2.7, note 10
Ruizhong 睿宗1/2.7 note 9
Shanyang 山阳 (山阳公,汉献帝)1/2.2, note 5,6
Shi Le 石勒 1/2.3 note 1
Shi Siming 史思明 1/2.7 note 12
Shunzong 顺宗 1/2.10 note 16
Sikong Shu 司空曙1/2.9, note 15
Sima 司马1/2.12, note 3
Sima Chi司马炽 (晋怀帝)1/2.3 note 2
Sima Dewen司马德文(东晋恭帝)1/2.3 note 12
Sima Qian 司马迁 1/2.2, note 1
Sima Rui,司马睿(晋元帝)1/2.1, note 2
Sima Yan 司马炎 (晋武帝)1/2.1, note 2
Sima Yuanxian 司马元显 1/2.3 note 11
Sinong Shaoqing, 司农少卿1/2.7, note 1
Song Zungui 宋遵贵 1/2.7
Sun Changzhi 孙畅之1/2.13, note 3
Sun Shangzi 孙尚子 1/2.1, note 10
Sun Quan 孙权1/2.8 note 3
Suo Jing 索靖1/2.11, note 8
Suzong 肃宗1/2.7 note 13, 1/2.13 note 13
Taihe 太和1/2.10,note 17
Taifu 太傅1/2.11 note 5
Taizong 太宗1/2.7, note 5
Taizi Siaobao 太子少保1/2.7, note 9
Tianbao 天宝1/2.7 note 12, 1/2.14, note 2
Tianjia 天嘉 1/2.6, note 1
Wang Fanqing 王方庆1/2.7, note 11
Wang Jie 王桀1/2.10, note 10
Wang Shichong 王世充 1/2.6, note 12
Wang Sili 王思礼1/2.9, note 4
Wang Xianzhi 王献之1/2.11,note 9
Wang Xizhi 王羲之1/2.13 note 2, 1/2.9 note 8,9,
Wang Yai 王涯1/2.10, note 16,17
Wang Yun 王允 1/2.2 note 7
Wei Gong 魏公1/2.9, note 5
Wei Hong 卫宏1/2.13 note 1
Wei Hongjian 魏弘简1/2.11,note 3
Wei Shuo 卫铄1/2.11,note 7
Wei Xie 卫协 1/2.1, note 5
Weiguo Gong 魏国公1/2.9
Wenzong 文宗1/2.10 note16
Wude 武德 1/2.6 note 13
Wudi 武帝1/2.2,
Wu Zetian 武则天 1/2.7, note 6,7
Wuzong 武宗1/2.12 note 8
Xian 西安 1/2.6 note 15
Xian Bei 鲜卑 1/2.6 note 10
Xiangcheng Yufu 相承御府1/2.7
Xianzong 宪宗 1/2.12 note
Xiao Daocheng 萧道成 (齐高帝)1/2.4 note 1
Xiao Gang 萧纲(梁简文帝)1/2.5 note 4
Xiao Lun 萧纶 1/2.10 note 14
Xiao Shicheng 萧世诚 (梁元帝)1/2.5, note 2
Xiaoshi 萧史1/2.11 note 10
XiaoYan 萧衍 (梁武帝)1/2.5 note 1
Xiao Yi 萧绎 (梁元帝)1/2.5
Xiao Ziyun 萧子云1/2.10,note 14
Xichuan 西川1/2.9, note 14
Xie An 谢安1/2.9 note 9
Xie Feng 谢奉 1/2.13 note 2
Xie Fu 谢傅1/2.9,note 9
Xie He 谢赫1/2.13, note 6
Xie Taifu 谢太傅1/2.9 note 9
Xie Zhuan 谢庄1/2.13 note 14
Xijing 西京 1/2.6 note 15
Xin Mang 新莽 1/2.1 note 1
Xiyu 西域 1/2.6 note 3
Xu Xun 许询1/2.9,note 8
Xuanzong 玄宗 1/2.5 note 8, 1/2.14 note 1,2,
Xuanzong 宣宗 1/2.14 note 6
Xue Ji 薛稷 1/2.7, note 9
Xun Su荀淑 1/2.10, note 8
Xunyang 浔阳1/2.12, note 5
Yan Liben 阎立本1/2.1, note 14, 1/5.2, note 2
Yan Lide 阎立德 1/2.1, note 14, 1/5.2, note 1
Yan Zhitui 颜之推 1/2.5,note 11
Yang Guang 杨广(隋炀帝)1/2.6, note 4
Yang Jian 杨坚(隋文帝)1/2.6 note 2
Yang Qidan 杨契丹 1/2.1, note 11
Yang Tong 杨侗 (隋皇泰主)1/2.6 note 12
Yang Xin 羊欣 1/2.10 note 14
Yange 延阁 1/2.2 note 2
Yangzi 扬子江1/2.12 note 5
Yao Zui 姚最 1/2.13, note 6
Yi Shao 逸少1/2.9, note 8
Ying Shao 应劭 1/2.2 note 7
Yuan Shuai Chang Shi元帅长史 1/2.6 note 4
Yu Jin 于谨 1/2.5, note 7
Yuan Shuai Ji Shi Can Jun 元帅记事参军 1/2.6, note 5
Yuan Zhen 元稹 1/2.12, note 11
Yuanhe 元和1/2.11, note 1
Yunmeng 云梦1/2.12, note 4
Yushi Dafu 御史大夫1/2.13, note 9
Yuwen Huaji 宇文化及 1/2.6, note 10
Yuwen Shu 宇文述 1/2.6 note 10
Zang Xi 藏喜 1/2.3 note 13
Zhan Ziqian 展子虔 1/2.1, note 9,
Zhang Huaiguan 张怀瓘*
Zhang Bei 张孛*1/2.8 note 3
Zhang Hongjing 张弘靖 1/2.10 note 1
Zhang Jiazhen 张嘉贞1/2.9 note 1, 2
Zhang Sengyao 张僧繇 1/2.1, note 12
Zhang Shen 张谂1/2.10, note 2
Zhang Yanshang 张延赏1/2.9 note 2
Zhang Yanyuang 张彦远 1/2.1, note 1,12, 1/2.2 note 7, 1/2.8 note 1,2, 1/2.10 note 1, 8, 11, 1/2.12 note 3, 1/2.13 note 13, 1/2.14 note 5,
Zhang Yizhi 张易之1/2.7, note 7
Zhang Zhi 张芝 1/2.11, note 6
Zhangshuji 掌书记1/2.12,note 8
Zheng Fashi 郑法士 1/2.1, note 12,13 1/2.10,note 14
Zhong Yao, 锺繇1/2.11, note 5
Zhongshu Sheren 中书舍人1/2.13, note 12
Zhu Kerong 朱克融 1/2.12,note 12
Zhuang Zhou 庄周1/2.10 note 7
Zhuangzi 庄子1/2.10, note 7
Zhuji诸暨 1/2.13 note 2
Zhuzuolang 著作郎1/2.13, note 11

Index 2, (books and paintings)
About Calligraphies of Two Wang 《二王等书录》(Er Wang deng Shu Lu) 1/2.5 note 8

The Art World by Wang《王氏画苑》(Wangshi Huayuan)1/2.4 note 4

The Book of Han- the Biography of Wudi《汉书-武帝纪》(Han Shu-Wudi Ji) 1/2.12 note 5

The Book of Han – the Document of Literature and Arts:《汉书-艺文志》(Han Shu-Yiwen Zhi) 1/2.2, note 2

The Book of Jin, the Biography of Wang Xizhi《晋书-王羲之传》(Jin Shu-Wang Xizhi Zhuan) 1/2.9 note 8

The Book of Jin, vloume 79, the Biography of Xie An《晋书-卷七十九-谢安传》(Jin Shu-Juan79-Xiean Zhuan) 1/2.9 note 9

The Book of later Han – the Biography of Dong Zhuo《后汉书-董卓传》(Hou Han Shu-Dongzhuo Zhuan) 1/2.2, note 5,6

The Book of Later Han- the Biography of Ma Yuan 《后汉书-马援传》(Hou Han Shu-Mayuan Zhuan) 1/2.8 note 3

The Book of Later Han – Biographies of Rulin《后汉书-儒林传》(Hou Han Shu-Rulin Zhuan) 1/2.2 note 7, 1/2.5 note 5

The Book of Later Han, volume 57 《后汉书-卷五七》(Hou Han Shu – Juan57) 1/2.13 note 1

The Book of Royal Compilation in the Years of Taiping, volume 194《太平御览-卷一九四》(Taiping Yu Lan – Juan194) 1/2.9 note 8

The Book of Song – the Biography of Xie Zhuan《宋书-谢庄传》(Song Shu – Xiezhuang Zhuan) 1/2.13 note 14

The Book of Sui,-the Biography of Gao Ying《隋书.高颎列传》(Sui Shu- Gaoying Liezhuan) **

The Book of Sui, the Biography of Niu Hong《隋书-牛弘传》(Sui Shu – Niuhong Zhuan) 1/2.2 note 7

The Book of Sui, the Biography of Shi Zu 《隋书 世祖本纪》(Sui Shu Shizu Benji) 1/2.6 note 6

The Book of Sui, Charpter of Books《隋书-经籍志》(Sui Shu – Jingjizhi) 1/2.13 note 3,14

The Brief Story of Three Kingdom 《三国典略》(Sanguo Dianlue) 1/2.5 note 8

The Classic Edition of Shangshu《古文尚书》(Guwen Shangshu) 1/2.13 note 1

The Comment on Modern and Ancient Calligraphers 《古今书人优劣评》(Gujin Shu Ren Youlie Ping) 1/2.5 note1

The Commentaries on Paintings 《画评》(Hua Ping) 1/2.13 note 11
The Complete Edition of Tang Poem 《全唐诗》(Quan Tang Shi) 1/2.13 note 11

The Complementary Record of Painting《画拾遗录》(Hua Shi Yilu) 1/2.13, note 13

The Current Text,Chapter of Generosity《世说新语-雅量篇》(Shi Shuo Xinyu – Ya Liang Pian) 1/2.9 note 9

Essays on the Record of Famous Paintings of all Dynasties 《历代名画记》论稿 (Lidai Minghua Ji Lungao) 1/2.9 note 1

The Famous Paintings of Tang Dynasty 《唐朝名画录》(Tang Chao Ming Hua Lu)1/5.3 note 10

The Form of Cursive Calligraphy 《草书状》(Caoshu Zhuang) 1/2.5 note 1,1/2.11 note 8

The General Mores《风俗通》(Fengsu Tong) by Ying Shao 1/2.2 note 7

The Guide for Ancient Book 《津逮秘书》(Jingdai Mi Shu) 1/2.4 note 4

The History of Painting in the Public and the Private in the Era of Zhenguan《贞观公私画史》(Zhenguan Gongsi Huanshi) 1/2.13 note 12

The History of Southern Dynasty, the Biography of Hou Jing 《南史-侯景传》(Nanshi – Houjing Zhuan) 1/2.5 note 4

The History of Southern Dynasty, the Biography of Xu Guang,volume33《南史-徐广传,卷33》(Nanshi – Xuguang Zhuan,juan33) 1/2.3 note 9,10

Huainanzi-Xiuwu Exhortation 《淮南子-修务训》(Huainanzi – Xuiwu Xun) 1/2.10 note 7

The Important Essays on Calligraphy 《法书要录》(Shufa Yaolu) 1/2.5 note 1,1/2.10, note 1, 1/2.11 note 7

The Important Essays on Calligraphy, Name List of Teachers on the Method of Brush 《法书要录-传授笔法人名》(Fashu Yaolu – Chuanshou Bifa Renming) 1/2.11 note 7

Jia Jing Edition《嘉靖本》(Jiajin Ben) 1/2.4 note 4

The New Book of Tang, Biography of Dou Jiangde《新唐书•窦建德列传》(Xin Tangshu – Doujiande Liezhuan) 1/2.6 note 11

The New Book of Tang, Record of Literature and Arts《新唐书-艺文志》(Xin Tangshu – Yiwen Zhi) 1/2.7 note 11

The New Book of Tang, volume 63, Record 47, literature and Arts1,《新唐书,卷六十三,志四十七,艺文一》(Xin Tangshu, Juan 63, Zhi 47, Yiwen 1) 1/2.7 note 2

The New Book of Tang,volume 127《新唐书-卷一二七》(Xin Tangshu – Juan127) 1/2.10 note 1, 1/2.12 note 12

The Observations of Feng《封氏闻见记》(Fengshi Wenjian Ji) 1/2.6 note 7

The Observation on Painting 《图画见闻志》(Tuhua Jianwen Zhi)**

Observation on Twelve States of Calligraphy by Zhong Yao《观钟繇 书法十二意》(Guan Zhongyao Shufa Shier Yi) 1/2.5 note 1

The Old Book of Tang, volume 99《旧唐书-卷九十九》(Jiu Tangshu – Juan 99) 1/2.9 note 1

The Old Book of Tang, volume 110, the Biography of Wang Sili 《旧唐书-卷一百一十-王思礼传》(Jiu Tangshu – Juan 110 – Wang Sili Zhuan) 1/2.9 note 4

The Old Book of Tang, volume 129《旧唐书-卷一二九》(Jiu Tangshu – Juan 129) 1/2.10 note 1

On Calligraphy, by Yu He虞龢《论书表》(Lun Shu Biao) 1/2.13 note 2

The Outline of the History of Calligraphy《书史会要》(Shu Shi Huiyao) 1/2.7 note 11

The Painting of the Duty Tribute《职贡图》 (Zhi Gong Tu) 1/2.5 note 2

the Petition for Allowance for Book Donation. 《上表请开献书之路》1/2.2 note 7

The Picture of Eight Dukes(Bagongtu)《八公图》(Ba Gong Tu)1/2.12 note 2

Qishu 《漆书》 1/2.13, note 1

The Rankings of Ancient Painting 《古画品录》(Guhua pinlu) 1/2.13 note 7

The Record of History, volume 6, the Biographies of Qin Shihhuang 《史记-卷六-秦始皇本纪》1/2.5 note 5

The Record of History, the Biography of Xiaowu 《史记-孝武本纪》(Shiji – Xiaowu Benji) 1/2.2, note 1

The Record of Later Painting 《后画录》(Hou Hua Lu) 1/2.13 note 8

The Record of Paintings in the Public and the Private《公私画录》si Hua Lu) (G1/2.13 note 12

The Record of State Wu《吴录》(Wu Lu) 1/2.8 note 3
The Record of Three Kingdom – Book of Wu – Biography of Zhao Da《三国志-吴书-赵达传》(Sanguo Zhi – Zhaoda Zhuan) 1/2.8 note

The Record of Three Kingdom, the Book of Wei 13, Biographies of Zhong Yao, Hua Xin,Wang Lang Number 13《三国志-魏书十三-锺繇华歆王朗传第十三》(Sanguo Zhi – Weishu 13 – Zhongyao Hua xin Wanglang Zhuan 13) 1/2.11 note 5

The Record of Xiyu with illustrations《西域图记》(Xiyu Tu Ji) 1/2.6 note

Reply to Recluse Tao on Calligraphy 《答陶隐居论书》(Da Tao Yinju Lunshu) 1/2.5 note 1

The Resurgence of Jin Dynasty. 《晋中兴书》(Jin Zhong Xing Shu)
1/2.3 note 9,10

The Sequel of the Rankings of Painting 《续画品》(Xu Hua Pin) 1/2.13 note 6

The Sequel of the Rankings of Painting Record《续画品录》Xu Hua Pin Lu) 1/2.13 note 9
Seven Bookmarks of Yun Bookcase 《云笈七签》(Yunji Qi Qian) 1/2.14 note 3

The Seven Strategies《七略》(Qi Lue) 1/2.2, note 2

Classics of History《尚书》(Shangshu) 1/2.13 note 1

Shuhuaji《述画记》(Shu Hua Ji) 1/2.13 note 4

The Story of Various Fairies, volume 1, Xiaoshi by Liu Xiang of Han汉刘向《列仙传-卷上-萧史》(Liexian Zhuan – Juan Shang – Xiao Shi) 1/2.11 note 10

The Strategies of Warring States, Chapter of Yan《战国策-燕策》)(Zhanguo Ce – Yan Ce) 1/2.8 note 1

The Studies on the Guide in Searching of the Origin 《学津讨原》(Xue Jing Tao Yuan) 1/2.4 note 4

The Treatise on Calligraphy 《述书赋》(Shu Shu Fu) 1/2.13 note 13
Wang’s Guide of Eight Calligraphy Styles《王氏八体书范》 (Wangshi Batishu Fan) 1/2.7 note 11
Xiaoshitu 《萧史图》(Xiaoshi Tu) 1/2.11, note 10

The Xuanzong Mashezhentu 《玄宗马射真图》(Xuanzong Mashe Zhentu) 1/2.12, note 1

The Yan Family’s Parental Instruction《颜氏家训》(Yanshi Jiaxun) 1/2.5 note 11

Yangchun Baixue 《阳春白雪》 1/2.9 note 16

Yiwenzi, The Great Path, volume 2 (Yiwenzi Dadao Xiapian)《伊文子-大道下篇》(Yi wenzi – Dadao Xiapian) 1/2.8 note 2

Zhuanzi- Autumn Water, Be Happy, Xu Wugui《庄子-秋水, 至乐,徐无鬼》(Zhuangzi – Qiushui, Zhile, Xu Wugui) 1/2.10 note 7





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